Henry VII: Search For a New Queen

Death of a Queen Consort

After the death of his wife and queen consort (Elizabeth of York), Henry VII grieved for a long period of time. Unlike numerous monarchs before him Henry appears to have loved his wife deeply. The two had grown very fond of each other over their marriage, and had experienced extreme loss together with the death of multiple children. But their relationship, as emotional as it may have been was blessed with four healthy children who survived to adulthood – two of which were sons and heirs to the throne. Henry and Elizabeth’s union may have been arranged, but their love was not.

Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York
henry7sittow1
Henry VII

Elizabeth of York died on her 37th birthday, in the royal apartments in the Tower of London, she had recently given birth to a daughter and died from puerperal fever – a very common cause of death for women at the time.

The day before Elizabeth died their infant daughter, Katherine, died as well. Not only was Henry grieving for his beloved wife, but also for the child they so desperately wanted.



When the heir to the throne, their eldest son Arthur died, Elizabeth told Henry that they were both still young enough to have more sons. Unfortunately the birth of their daughter Katherine would be her final act as queen. The baby was not the son (and spare heir) they had hoped for, but they were both very happy to welcome another child into their family.

In Alison Weir’s book, Katherine of Aragon – The True Queen,  she claims their daughter was named after Katherine of Aragon. This seems highly plausible to me since it appears that Katherine and Elizabeth had grown very close to one another during their time together. In those early years she was treated like a daughter by both the king and queen.

After the death Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales Katherine of Aragon was titled dowager princess of Wales, however, by birth she was Princess (Infanta) of Spain — a country ruled by her parents, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. Spain was a very powerful country to be aligned with, and a powerful ally against France, a mutual enemy of both England and Spain.



Katherine of Aragon, dowager princess of Wales

When Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales died so did the marriage treaty between Spain and England. With the death of Arthur should have come the end of the alliance between England and Spain, but it did not. The idea of a marriage between Henry, Prince of Wales (future Henry VIII) and Katherine was under negotiations, and a papal dispensation was sought since Katherine had been married to Henry’s brother. In the meantime Henry VII came up with the idea of taking the dowager princess of Wales as his own bride. This would surely maintain the alliance between the two countries and offer him another opportunity for more sons. Would the Spanish monarchs agree to a marriage between this young daughter and the aged King of England?

Here is a letter written by Katherine’s mother Queen Isabella when she heard of Henry VII’s  intentions:

Regarding: Death of the Queen of England.  Marriage of Henry VII to the Princess of Wales. Opinion entertained of it by Queen Isabella.

…The Doctor (Roderigo De Puebla) has also written to us concerning the marriage of the King of England with the Princess of Wales, our daughter, saying that it is spoken of in England. But as this would be a very evil thing,—one never before seen, and the mere mention of which offends the ears,—we would not for anything in the world that it should take place. Therefore, if anything be said to you about it, speak of it as a thing not to be endured. You must likewise say very decidedly that on no account would we allow it, or even hear it mentioned, in order that by these means the King of England may lose all hope of bringing it to pass, if he have any. For, the conclusion of the betrothal of the Princess, our daughter, with the Prince of Wales, his son, would be rendered impossible if he were to nourish any such idea.

If you should find that the King of England wishes to marry, we will tell you, at the end of this letter, the match which we think would be suitable for him, and all that occurs to us relative to it.

The Spanish monarch, Isabella was not keen to the idea of Henry VII taking her daughter as a queen – as a matter of fact, she seemed almost disgusted by the thought. We must also keep in mind that this may all have been a rumor since the ambassador mentions that it was spoken of in England and does not say the King of England told him. With all that being said Isabella wanted no part of it, rumor or not. Instead, Isabella suggested her niece, Joanna of Aragon (dowager queen of Naples). Joanna of Aragon (15 April 1479 – 27 August 1518) had been married her half-nephew, Ferdinand (Frederick) II of Naples.  Joanna was the daughter of Ferdinand’s grandfather Ferdinand I and his second wife, Joanna of Aragon. Joanna’s husband (and nephew) died in 1496 not long after their wedding. Joanna was 17/18 years old at the time. With the absence of a direct heir from Ferdinand (Frederick) II of Aragon and Joanna, the crown was inherited by his uncle Frederick, legitimate brother and Joanna’s half-brother.

(Side note: I must be honest, this paragraph confused me immensely. I checked and re-checked names to ensure I had the correct people and titles but the more I researched the more confused I became. There is more than one Joanna of Aragon and Ferdinand/Frederick is a little confusing as well. If you see an error in the paragraph please let me know.)



April 1503 – dowager queen of Naples

A Letter from Queen Isabella Of Spain to Ferdinand, Duke De Estrada:

(Where you see … is part of the letter that is illegible)

Regarding: Marriage of the King of England to the dowager queen of Naples.

Returning now to the affair of the betrothal of the King of England, it seems to us that it would suit him very well to … (fn. 1) the Queen of Naples, our niece, because in addition to … her much … which is suited for the consolation and comfort of the King of England. By this marriage the alliance and friendship subsisting between the two parties would, at any rate, be strengthened. On this account, if you find that the King of England wishes to marry, act in the way and manner which may seem best to you, being careful of the honour of both parties. If the King of England think well of this proposal, confer with him in detail on the conditions, and inform us of them, that we may make such provision as may be requisite, and let what passes in the matter be kept secret. But do not on this account defer the departure of the Princess of Wales, unless it be for the cause, and in the manner, above said.

At the time Isabella wrote the above letter she was working on bringing her daughter Katherine back to Spain. The negotiations for marriage with Henry, Prince of Wales (future Henry VIII) had turned sour and looked as though the marriage would never happen.

Isabella of Castile c. 1485
Katherine of Aragon by Michel Sittow
Katherine of Aragon c. 1502

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On 26 November 1504, Isabella of Castile died. The below letters from De Peubla, the Spanish Ambassador, were dated the 5th of December 1504. It appears that he was not aware of his queen’s death when he wrote this letter. It is broken into passages. These passages all appear to be part of the same letter and are broken down by subject.



5 December 1504 

Passage #1

Ambassador Roderigo De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella (Spanish Monarchs):

Regarding: dowager queen of Naples.

As to the match between the Queen of Naples and the King of England, your Highnesses may rest assured that a business of so much importance has not been allowed to lie dormant. On the contrary, I have spoken many times to the King about it, sometimes in private, and sometimes in presence of the members of the Privy Council. The marriage is much approved by the King and the Privy Council, and is thought a better one than any other which has been or can be offered him, search all the world over. While making this declaration, they lauded your Highnesses, on many accounts, and for many considerations, above the Cherubim.

It is true that the King has had letters from France, which he showed me, and in which he is assured that your Highnesses are going to give this lady, your niece, to the son of Don Fadrique, (fn. 1) should it be agreeable to the King of France. He is also told that the King of France did not wish for the match, and that the ambassadors of your Highnesses, who are in France, had departed, taking this answer with them from the King of France, and without being able to come to any conclusion respecting the peace.

The dowager queen of Naples was rumored to be considered in marriage to the son of Don Fadrique (Frederick of Aragon) to strengthen the throne of Naples. The rumor was that Ferdinand and Isabella had suggested the match. This would be the Frederick we referred to above that inherited the throne when his predecessor did not have an heir.

Passage #2

Henry VII desires further particulars respecting her:

I replied to all this, that I did not believe it, as your Highnesses yourselves had written to make the offer (of the marriage with the Queen Dowager of Naples) to his Highness. He answered, with all respect to your Highnesses, that such a thing might have taken place before your Highnesses made him the offer. Finally, the conclusion arrived at by the King and his Council is, that it seems a thing which ought not to be, and an improper thing, for the King to conclude such a marriage without being first certified by his ambassadors and envoys as to the person and appearance of the said Queen. For your Highnesses must know that if she were ugly, and not beautiful, the King of England would not have her for all the treasures in the world, nor would he dare to take her, the English thinking so much as they do about personal appearance. Moreover, I was told that neither the King nor his Council had seen any letters or instruction from your Highnesses, in writing, to which they might have given entire credence, but had had to rely solely upon my relation, saying that your Highnesses had always written to me in cipher. Nor had they even seen the picture which I had begged your Highnesses to send. Therefore, on account of all these things, the King greatly desired, as did also the Privy Council, that, provided it were agreeable to your Highnesses, he would send ambassadors to Valencia, or to your Highneses, about the matter, when and how and where your Highnesses might direct, and in case the request should appear to you to be a proper one.

I find the above correspondence quite interesting. Like his son later, Henry VII insisted the Spanish ambassador provide a portrait of the queen dowager of Naples before anything is made final – as appearances meant much to him. Since there were no portraits available of her the ambassadors were sent to Naples to report on the appearance of the queen dowager themselves. The reports were satisfactory, however, negotiations eventually fell through due to political and financial reasons.



Prior to March 1505 – Margaret of Savoy

According to S.B. Chrimes book, Henry VII, sometime prior to March 1505, Maximilian (Holy Roman Emperor) had offered his daughter, Margaret of Savoy as a suitable spouse for Henry VII. He appears to have looked further into the matter. Henry was as much of a prize to other countries as they were to him. More on this shortly.

Margaret of Savoy c. 1500
Margaret of Savoy c. 1500
Marguerite d’Angoulême

July 1505 - Marguerite of Angoulême

Getting into the game, King Louis XII proposed his niece, Marguerite of Angoulême, to wed the King of England. Marguerite was the daughter of Charles, count of Angoulême. Louis XII proposed the marriage along with some conditions, of course. He also offered a comparable dowry to the one that had been offered by Ferdinand and Isabella for the dowager queen of Naples.  Whether it be the possible alliance with his enemy, or another reason, Henry VII only briefly entertained this option. It appears at this time that the King of England was more interested in the match with Margaret of Savoy.

The possibility of marriage to Margaret of Savoy was a very attractive match for Henry. If it had come to fruition it would have changed the balance of power between Henry and Maximilian. The possibility of this match dragged out until 1508. It was then that Margaret of Savoy declined the offer and chose to remain a widow. Not a bad idea for her as she was now regent of the Netherlands for her nephew, Archduke Charles.

**On To the Next**

After the death of Isabella of Castile, her daughter Juana inherited the throne of Castile. When Juana’s husband, Philip (the Handsome) passed away unexpectedly on 25 September 1506, it left Juana as a prize to be claimed – especially by a money and status-hungry English monarch.

Juana of Castile
Juana of Castile
Juan_de_Flandes_004
Philip the Handsome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After the death of her husband, Juana is said to have gone mad. It was reported that she traveled with her husband’s body because she could not bear to be apart from him. Many have stated that Juana was very jealous of the attention that her husband received from other women, and that she did not approve of his actions toward them either. When he passed away it was her opportunity to have him by her side at all times.

Henry VII didn’t seem to mind the “madness” that ensued in Juana’s life after the death of her husband, as long as she was able to bear children for him. Or was it that he understood the grief that a spouse goes through after losing someone they loved so greatly?

Juana the Mad Holding Vigil over the Coffin of Her Late Husband, Philip the Handsome
Juana the Mad Holding Vigil over the Coffin of Her Late Husband, Philip the Handsome



March 1507 – Queen Juana of Castile

The possible match between the dowager queen of Castile and Henry VII seems to have been one of most interest to both parties. There were far more correspondences found between these two countries than with the others that were mentioned above.

A Letter from Katherine of Aragon, Princess of Wales to her father, Ferdinand of Aragon:

Regarding: Proposal of Henry to marry Queen Juana.

Has read her letter, by which she has communicated to him the wish of the King of England to marry her sister, Queen Juana. She must tell the King that it is not yet known whether Queen Juana be inclined to marry again ; but if the said Queen should marry again, it shall be with no other person than with the King of England, especially as he has proposed such acceptable conditions. Expects that the King of England will send him an ambassador with whom he can treat about this marriage of Queen Juana, as soon as it is known in England that he has returned to Castile. But the affair must be kept most secret; for if Queen Juana should hear anything about it, she would most probably do something quite to the contrary. No one knows her better than himself. For this reason nothing must be done before his return to Spain.

Katherine of Aragon is attempting to give advice to her father on the actions on England and how things should be handled. She appears to understand her sister very well and agrees that Henry would be a great husband for Juana as well as a continued ally for Spain. At the time Katherine was also looking forward to having her sister with her in England as company.

Ambassador De Puebla later wrote a letter to Ferdinand of Aragon to confess that the English king did not seem very concerned with the sanity of Juana. That Henry VII would make a great husband for her and that he believes after marrying the English king she would recover from her illness. However, if she would not recover from said illness it would be better for her to be in England than Spain.

Part of the negotiations included Henry living for a short period of time in Spain with Juana after they were married. I nearly laughed out loud when I read that part because there is no way (in my mind) that Henry would have left England for fear of invasion from an enemy or fear of someone usurping his throne.



19 May 1507 – Queen Juana of Castile

Letter from King Ferdinand to Ambassador De Puebla:

Regarding: Opinion of Ferdinand respecting the proposed marriage between Henry and Queen Juana.

Does not yet know whether the Queen of Castile can be persuaded to marry at all ; but if she marries, her husband shall be the King of England, and no other person. The conditions which the King of England offers are as favourable as possible. Besides, the said King is a Prince of great virtue and experience. It would be a consolation to him at his hour of death to know that his daughter, his grandchildren, and his kingdoms would remain under the protection and guidance of such a man as King Henry. The only reason why his reply to the King of England is not a definite answer, is, because it is necessary first to speak with the Queen of Castile.

Ferdinand by Meister der Magdalenen Legende
Ferdinand by Meister der Magdalenen Legende

June 1507 – Queen Juana of Castile

Letter from King Ferdinand to Ambassador De Puebla:

Regarding: Queen of Castile

Thinks the King of England is right not to send an embassy to the Queen of Castile before his return. Could the business have been arranged during his absence, it would already have been done. But if any other person were first to speak to the Queen of Castile about her marriage, the whole affair would be thrown into confusion. Will do his utmost to persuade the Queen of Castile to marry the King of England. He may rest sure that, if the Queen marries, her husband will be no other Prince than King Henry. Loves Henry like a brother ; and, besides, the conditions which he offers are very advantageous to himself, to the Queen, to his grand-children, and to Spain.

I read through the Letters, Despatches and State Papers Relating to The Negotiations between England and Spain and in there it sheds new light on the “madness” of Juana. It implies that Juana’s madness was created by Ferdinand of Aragon so he could retain the power of Castile himself. What do you believe?

From the letters written to the ambassador from his king is truly appears as if Ferdinand of Aragon wishes his daughter to marry only King Henry of England. I’m sure he saw the benefit of having two daughters in England, just as Henry saw the benefit of being aligned with Spain.



8 June 1507 – Queen Juana of Castile

Letter appears to be written by De Puebla to Henry VII after he received the letter from Ferdinand of Aragon:

Regarding: Sentiments entertained by Ferdinand toward Henry

King Henry may rest sure that he (Ferdinand) will do all in his power to secure this marriage. If the Queen of Castile is to marry, she shall marry no other person than the King of England, who is so distinguished by his virtues. No other Prince would offer the same advantages. Would live and die in peace if he knew that his daughter, his grand-children, and his kingdoms were under the protection of Henry VII. King Philip has been his enemy, but King Henry would be his loving son. Has a firm desire to show his fondness for the King of England, not only in words, but also by deeds.

By September, Henry VII is growing very anxious on the matter and would like an answer regarding the marriage proposal. It has been six months already and he still does not have an answer. Katherine of Aragon seems to be the moderator between her father and Henry VII, trying to keep things calm between them.

September 1507 – Queen Juana of Castile

Letter from Katherine to her father Ferdinand of Aragon:

Regarding: Impatience of Henry respecting his marriage with Queen Juana

The King of England is very impatient to have an answer respecting his intended marriage. It is most inconvenient to him to wait, because he has other marriages in view. The King of England says he fears that the affair will be much protracted, and the answer of the Queen of Castile unfavourable. Tells him that he must be patient; the King her father has scarcely arrived in Spain, and such a delicate business as this cannot be hurried.

Henry VII
Henry VII

October 1507

Katherine decides to write her sister in Spain. It’s such a great insight into Katherine’s mind.

Letter from Katherine, Princess of Wales to Queen Juana of Castile:

Regarding: Sorrow felt by the Princess Katharine on the departure of Queen Juana

Most noble and most mighty Princess, Queen and Lady, after having kissed the royal hands of your Highness and humbly commended myself to you, I have to express the very great pleasure it gave me to see you in this kingdom, and the distress which filled my heart, a few hours afterwards, on account of your sudden and hasty departure.

Regarding: Feeling of Henry VII towards Queen Juana:

My Lord the King was also much disappointed in consequence of it, and if he had acted as he secretly wished, he would, by every possible means, have prevented your journey. But, as he is a very passionate King, it was thought advisable by his Council that they should tell him he ought not to interfere between husband and wife. (fn. 10) On which account, and for the sake of other mysterious causes with which I was very well acquainted, he concealed the feelings occasioned by the departure of your Highness, although it is very certain that it weighed much upon his heart.
The great affection he has felt, and still feels, towards your Royal Highness from that time until now, is well known. I could not in truth express, even though I were to use much paper, the pleasure which my lord the King and I felt on hearing that the King, our lord and father, had returned to Castile, and was abiding there with your Highness, and that he was obeyed throughout all the kingdom, peace and concord prevailing everywhere.

Proposal made by the Princess Katharine to Queen Juana:

It is true that I have experienced, and am still experiencing, some sorrow and depression of mind on account of having heard, a few days ago, that the French have taken a large and beautiful city called Tilmote, belonging to my nephew, and that all his subjects and the whole land are in great fear of the French. Wherefore, as a remedy for everything, and not less for the destruction and chastisement of the Duke of Gueldres his rebel, I have ventured to write these lines to your Highness, entreating you to hearken to my wishes respecting this matter. I have, moreover, written to my lord the King, our father, about this business, which is of great advantage and importance to your Highness, to the increase of your state, the tranquility and welfare of your subjects, and those of the said Prince, my nephew, and which also affects my lord, the King of England. He is a Prince who is feared and esteemed at the present day by all Christendom, as being very wise, and possessed of immense treasures, and having at his command powerful bodies of excellent troops. Above all, he is endowed with the greatest virtues, according to all that your Highness will have heard respecting him.



Regarding: Contemplated results of a marriage between Henry VII and Queen Juana:

If what my lord the King, our father, shall say to you should please, as I think it will please, your Highness, I do not doubt but that your Highness will become the most noble and the most powerful Queen in the world. Moreover, nothing will more conduce to your pleasure and satisfaction, and the security of the kingdom of your Highness. In addition to all this, it will double the affection subsisting between my lord the King, our father, and my lord, the King of England. It will also lead to the whole of Africa being conquered within a very short time, and in the hands of the Christian subjects of your Highness, and of my lord the King, our father.
I entreat your Highness to pardon me for having written to you, and for having meddled in so great and high a matter. God knows what my wishes are, as I have already said ; and I have not found it possible to resist the desire I felt to write to you. For it appears to me that if this be not done, it will be committing a great sin against God, against the King, our lord and father, and against your Highness, whose life and royal estate may our Lord guard and increase.—Richmond, 25th October.
The Princess Of Wales.

After all the negotiations to choose the right partner, the right country to ally himself with, Henry VII died before concluding ANY of his negotiations.

Sources:

Supplement to Calendar of Letters, Despatches, and State Papers, Relating to the Negotiations Between England and Spain: Henry VII 1485-1509 https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=P_wUAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&hl=en&pg=GBS.PR1

Chrimes, S.B., Henry VII

Spanish letters referenced only as I do not have access to the English version. This provides the unique insight from Spain during the negotiations.

‘Spain: April 1503’, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, ed. G A Bergenroth (London, 1862), pp. 294-305. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/spain/vol1/pp294-305 [accessed 9 May 2016].

‘Spain: December 1504’, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, ed. G A Bergenroth (London, 1862), pp. 342-348. British History Onlinehttp://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/spain/vol1/pp342-348 [accessed 30 April 2016].

‘Spain: July 1505’, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, ed. G A Bergenroth (London, 1862), pp. 362-366. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/spain/vol1/pp362-366 [accessed 13 April 2016].

‘Spain: March 1507’, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, ed. G A Bergenroth (London, 1862), pp. 403-406. British History Onlinehttp://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/spain/vol1/pp403-406 [accessed 27 May 2016].

‘Spain: May 1507’, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, ed. G A Bergenroth (London, 1862), pp. 414-417. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/spain/vol1/pp414-417 [accessed 31 May 2016].

‘Spain: June 1507’, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, ed. G A Bergenroth (London, 1862), pp. 417-418. British History Onlinehttp://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/spain/vol1/pp417-418 [accessed 17 May 2016].

‘Spain: September 1507’, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, ed. G A Bergenroth (London, 1862), pp. 425-433. British History Onlinehttp://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/spain/vol1/pp425-433 [accessed 29 May 2016].

‘Spain: October 1507’, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, ed. G A Bergenroth (London, 1862), pp. 433-441. British History Onlinehttp://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/spain/vol1/pp433-441 [accessed 17 May 2016].



Do you ?? this website and cannot get enough of it? Or would you just like to show your support for me, Rebecca Larson….here is an option for a one-time donation through a secure PayPal page. Thanks in advance!

 [wpedon id=”8586″ align=”center”]

Facebook no longer shows our posts to a majority of our followers - Don't want to miss out on new articles? Get notified! Subscribe to email updates from Tudors Dynasty.

Join 5,012 subscribers.

 

The Life and Love of the Pretender

the-life-and-love-of-the-pretender

During the reign of King Henry VII, the “Pretender,” Perkin Warbeck claimed to be Richard, Duke of York, the second son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. At the time it was very significant for Warbeck to come forward as the Duke of York because there were still many Yorkist supporters — Henry VII had only reigned for a short time and some noblemen and subjects alike had hoped for a York resurrection. If he were indeed the son of the late King Edward IV the throne of England should, in many people’s eyes, be his for the taking – regardless of the fact that Henry Tudor won the crown in battle.

When Edward IV died in 1483, his eldest son Edward, Prince of Wales became Edward V. Edward was only a child of twelve at the time and could not rule England outright. His uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester was the only surviving brother of the late King and was named Lord Protector of the realm until Edward came of age.

Unfortunately this would not be enough for Richard. He had placed both Edward V and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York in the Tower. Richard, Duke of Gloucester claimed it was in preparation of the coronation of Edward V, but the boys would never leave the Tower. That we know of.

The Duke of Gloucester declared the marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville invalid and therefore their children illegitimate – this meant that Richard, Duke of Gloucester was now the rightful heir to the throne. He became King Richard III (1483-1485) and the boys were never seen or heard from again.

Flash forward to 1490 at the court in Burgundy — Perkin Warbeck claimed to be Richard, Duke of York.  At court he was recognized by Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy. Margaret was the sister of the late Edward IV and Richard III. She would surely recognize her nephew, right? That question is one that we will never truly know the answer to.

Hailed as the rightful heir to the throne of England, Richard (aka Warbeck) set out to reclaim his father’s throne. But England already had a king: the first of the Tudors, Henry VII. Henry proclaimed the young man an imposter and nicknamed him “Perkin Warbeck”, but he behaved—not as if the young man was an upstart—but as if he faced the clash of another legitimate claimant. –On the Tudor Trail

A Tale of True Adventure: The Boy Who Pretended He Was King. Original artwork from Look and Learn no. 180 (26 June 1965).
A Tale of True Adventure: The Boy Who Pretended He Was King. Original artwork from Look and Learn no. 180 (26 June 1965).

Warbeck wrote to Isabella of Castile (mother to Katherine of Aragon) in 1493:

“I myself, then nearly nine years of age, was also delivered to a certain Lord to be killed, [but] it pleased Divine Clemency, that lord, having compassion on my innocence, preserved me alive in safety: first, however, causing me to swear on the holy sacrament that to no one should I disclose my name, origin, or family, until a certain number of years had passed. He then sent me therefore abroad, with two persons, who should watch over and take charge of me;  and thus I, an orphan, bereaved of my royal father and brother, an exile from my kingdom, and deprived of my country, inheritance and fortune, a fugitive in the midst of extreme perils, led my miserable life, in fear, and weeping, and grief, and for the space of nearly eight years lay hid…scarcely had I emerged from childhood alone and without means, I remained for a time in the kingdom of Portugal, and thence sailed to Ireland, where being recognised by illustrious lords, the earl of Desmond and Kildare, my cousins, as also by other noblemen of the island, I was received with great joy and honour. -Richard” - British Library MS Egerton 616), as quoted by I. Arthurson in The Perkin Warbeck Conspiracy, P. 49-50

Soon Warbeck would gain support from others including King James IV of Scotland. The Scottish King was not exactly on the friendliest of terms with the English King (Henry VII) and would take this opportunity in an attempt to dethrone him and have the presumptive English King (Warbeck) as an ally. In order for James IV to seal the friendship and alliance with Warbeck he betrothed his cousin Lady Katherine Gordon to the young man.

In December 1495, Perkin Warbeck wrote this letter to Lady Katherine Gordon:

scottish womanMost noble lady, it is not without reason that all turn their eyes to you; that all admire, love, and obey you. For they see your two-fold virtues by which you are so much distinguished above all other mortals. Whilst, on the one hand, they admire your riches and immutable prosperity, which secure to you the nobility of your lineage and the loftiness of your rank, they are, on the other hand, struck by your rather divine than human beauty, and believe that you are not born in our days, but descended from Heaven.

All look at your face, so bright and serene that it gives splendour to the cloudy sky ; all look at your eyes as brilliant as stars, which make all pain to be forgotten, and turn despair into delight ; all look at your neck, which outshines pearls ; all look at your fine forehead, your purple light of youth, your fair hair ; in one word, at the splendid perfection of your person ;—and looking at, they cannot choose but admire you ; admiring, they cannot choose but love you ; loving, they cannot choose but obey you.

I shall, perhaps, be the happiest of all your admirers, and the happiest man on earth, since I have reason to hope you will think me worthy of your love. If I represent to my mind all your perfections, I am not only compelled to love, to adore, and to worship you, but love makes me your slave. Whether waking or sleeping, I cannot find rest or happiness except in your affection. All my hopes rest in you, and in you alone.
Most noble lady, my soul, look mercifully down upon me your slave, who has ever been devoted to you from the first hour he saw you. Love is not an earthly thing, it is heaven born. Do not think it below yourself to obey love’s dictates. Not only kings, but also gods and goddesses have bent their necks beneath its yoke.

I beseech you, most noble lady, to accept for ever one who in all things will cheerfully do your will as long as his days shall last. Farewell, my soul and my consolation. You, the brightest ornament of Scotland, farewell, farewell. -‘Spain: December 1495’, in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, ed. G A Bergenroth (London, 1862), pp. 72-79

In 1497 Warbeck traveled again with two or three small vessels – he was accompanied by his wife, Katherine. After departing Scotland Warbeck crossed to Ireland. When he arrived he found no allies and was being pursued by the Earl of Kildare. In a country that had supported the House of York Warbeck was sadly not welcomed, so he sailed to Devon. On 7 September, he was joined by a crowd of people who had recently revolted against excessive taxation. He continued to Exeter, but was unable to master the town. As Henry VII’s troops approached Warbeck deserted his followers and ran for refuge to the sanctuary of Beaulieu in Hampshire where he surrendered.

Henry VII receives Lady Katherine Gordon
Henry VII receives Lady Katherine Gordon

After Warbeck’s capture his wife Katherine was treated kindly and placed in the household of Queen Elizabeth of York – the queen of Henry VII. Who, if Warbeck was indeed the Duke of York, was her sister-in-law. I often wonder what Elizabeth of York thought of all of this.

“Henry allowed Warbeck to remain at court where he could be watched. However, he foolishly tried to run away which seemed to emphasise his treachery. Warbeck was put in the stocks, humiliated and sent to the Tower. Clearly after being generous to the pretender, Henry’s patience had run out. In 1499, Warbeck was charged with trying to escape for a second time, found guilty and hanged on November 23rd 1499″.– The History Learning Site

hanging of perkin warbeck
The hanging of Perkin Warbeck, the “Pretender”

The ultimate fate of Perkin Warbeck came about because of his own choice to try to escape. I often wonder what would have happened to him if he had not done so. I tend to romanticize things, and in doing so I honestly believe that Warbeck was indeed Richard, Duke of York. I like to believe that he was who he said he was. That he was sent away from court (and replaced with a local boy) by his mother Elizabeth Woodville so that she could make sure at least one of her sons were safe. We can all understand why Elizabeth wouldn’t trust Richard III after he claimed her marriage to his brother was invalid – oh, and the part where he had her son Sir Richard Grey and brother Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers executed on 25 June 1483.

It’s possible that we may never know who Perkin Warbeck truly was, and until then we can only speculate. Were the skeletal remains of the two young boys found in the Tower of London indeed the Princes in the Tower? Was Perkin Warbeck really Richard, Duke of York? Did Elizabeth of York recognize her younger brother, and was she unable to do everything in her power to save him from certain death?

Facebook no longer shows our posts to a majority of our followers - Don't want to miss out on new articles? Get notified! Subscribe to email updates from Tudors Dynasty.

Join 5,012 subscribers.

 

The Catholic Monarchs: Isabella of Castile

The Catholic Monarchs

The Catholic Monarchs: Isabella of Castile
Guest article by: Meg

 The Catholic Monarchs 

Have you heard about Katherine of Aragon – the first unfortunate wife of Henry VIII of England? I am pretty sure you have. But do you know where she came from, whose child she was and what her parents did? Isabella and Ferdinand – The Catholic Monarchs.

Surprisingly they aren’t known well outside of Spain although they were one of the most powerful people of their time next to kings of France, Portugal and rulers of Low Countries. And undoubtedly one of the most interesting power couples whose „accomplishments left their contemporaries speechless” – according to one of Isabella’s Spanish biographers. They’re usually associated with such horrific acts as Spanish Inquisition and expulsion of Jews but there is much more you need to know about them!

*She:* a blonde, of very pale complexion and blue green*”cheerful” eyes.* A woman of middle stature, a bit shorter than her husband, of voice less clear than the one of the King but of good pronunciation. Nice face. Strong. Proud. A skillful politician. Manipulative. Very religious but also temperamental and firm – when she has made a decision neither anyone nor anything could make her change her mind. Passionately and „forever” in love with her husband. A very jealous wife „beyond all measure” who has been watching over her ladies-in-waiting to make sure Ferdinand wasn’t in love with any other but her. A lover of lavish, elaborate gowns and cloths as well as good cosmetics and a kind of austere in „her daily customs”. She was taking care of her children, overseeing their education. Trying to give them the best start possible, considering her own education was lacking even though she was a princess.

Isabella l of Castile
Isabella I of Castile

*He:* a man of middle stature, well-built, well-formed face and all his limbs, of *„smiling”,* *„clever” *dark eyes, sensual lips, black hair and swarthy complexion. He was raised on wars earning his experience and reputation of a warrior and later turning out to be the first king-soldier of his times. Strong, courageous, persistent, manipulative but also sympathetic and kind. He was believed to be the best diplomat, politician and soldier of the late 15th century. Highly charming: *„when anyone talked to him, they came to love him at once”.* A great fan of sports and board games. Seductive. A notorious womanizer. A the age of 17 (before getting married to Isabella) he already had three illegitimate children by two different women. Discreet. Passionate but also a calculative realist – the matter of state came first. *„He always loved Isabella but he never lost his mind for her.”*

Ferdinand ll of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon

Isabella (1451-1504)

Isabella I of Castile was born on 22th day of April 1451, in Madrigal de Las Altas Torres as a first child to John II of Castile and his second much younger wife, Isabella of Portugal, portuguese princess. As his father already had an heir (later Henry IV of Castile) by his first, deceased wife (Maria of Aragon) little princess didn’t get much attention of chroniclers – hence we don’t have much information regarding her childhood. After the birth of her younger brother Alfonso Trastámara in 1453 – no one really believed Isabella was destined to be a great Queen.

John II of Castile
King John ll

King John II died when his daughter was three years old and after the accession of her half-brother, she moved altogether with her mother and brother to Arévalo where she spent the rest of her childhood. There is way too much to be told about Henry and his idling reign so let’s focus on the basics: Henry IV of Castile nicknamed „The Impotent” that he has earned during his first marriage to Blanche of Navarre (Blanche was a half-sister to Ferdinand II of Aragon) was not only a weak king, prone to manipulation of those who surrounded him but he also had a problem with providing an heir to the throne. He had been married to Blanche for years and wasn’t able to consummate the marriage that’s why their union eventually got annulled and the king sought for a new bride – he chose Joanna of Portugal, his first cousin (Henry’s mother and Joanna’s mother were sisters) who after a few years gave him a child, a daughter named after her mother (1462). Unfortunately, people didn’t have a high opinion of Joanna of Avis who was believed to be dressing up and acting scandalously: it was one of many factors that casted a shadow of doubt on the little princess’ legitimacy. (It’s a subject for separate article.) That way infanta Isabella and her brother Alfonso became pawns on a political board in the hands of ambitious nobles who weren’t satisfied with Henry’s reign and most importantly with the fact others took the king’s favor away from them.



Unstable Castile divided into two factions: the one still faithful to the legitimate king, the other – trying to depose him, placing his half brother, 12-year-old infante on the throne.

Isabella and Alfonso were brought to their half-brother’s court (1462) – taken away from the Castle in Arevalo where they spent their rather happy and quiet childhood, living a modest life (from 1455 to 1462) almost in
isolation alongside their mother, The Queen Dowager, Isabella of Portugal (House of Avis) who was showing symptoms of *some mental illness.*

Since then they great journey had begun – once basically forgotten and ignored princess, Isabella burst out of obscurity. She had even become a godmother to her niece and nothing indicated the two would fight against one another in the future.

Isabella and Alfonso had been living at Joanna of Avis’ court for many years and from his later manifest directed at her half-brother we can assume they didn’t get along too well, as Isabella herself stated: *„we were brutally taken away from our mother’s arms”- *however, Henry IV of Castile wasn’t a tyrant, he was a man of a peaceful nature so we can’t say it was really brutal or that the infantes were treated badly.

5 June 1465

Henry lV
Henry lV

Riots against Henry IV got stronger. Nobles decided to use 12-year-old prince Alfonso against his older brother, hence so-called *Farce of **Ávila* took place on that memorable day. A group of powerful nobles set up a wooden stage outside of the walls of Avilla – and placed there a doll, „holding” a scepter and wearing a crown – a mockery, an epitome of King Henry IV which was *symbolically* deposed and devastated. Prince Alfonso was declared the *rightful* king of Castile and León.

From then on there had been two kings in the kingdom – each of them had their own supporters and factions – one was a grown but weak and undecided man, the other was still a child, not able to rule on his own.

As Isabella had been raised alongside her younger brother, she recognized him as her rightful king at the same time trying not to get into an open conflict with Henry – who to dissatisfaction of many still had the edge over Alfonso of rather those who were manipulating him.

At the time, Isabella was set free from her *incarceration *at the court of her sister-in-law. She received her own household in Alcazar of Segovia under pressure of a commission which was trying to lead up to an agreement between king Henry and so-called The League of Nobles (the ones that raised up against their sovereign). Meanwhile both brothers were bestowing upon her different graces like estates and cities. We can say the princess’ position was getting stronger and stronger.

Between winter of 1467 and summer of 1468 – the infantes, Alfonso and Isabella sent a few months together enjoying their company. Unfortunately in the summer of 1468 on their way from Arévalo to Ávila the king-prince had fallen ill and eventually died on 5th of July.

Those were difficult times for 17-year-old Isabella. She had to come to terms with her personal tragedy, with loss of her beloved brother and try to survive in the kingdom that had been plunged into chaos. She had to make a choice: should she claim herself Alfonso’s heir, following the whole route and come into conflict with Henry IV or to negotiate? At first she stuck to the first option but overtime upon noticing Henry’s faction was much stronger, The League of Nobles wasn’t as firm as it had been before prince Alfonso’s death and considering common longing for peace, she decided that negotiations would be the best solution.

19 September 1468

On that day King Henry and Isabella’s decisive meeting in Toros de Guisando took place. She was declared his rightful heir, put ahead of his daughter Joanna Trastamara in the line of succession, getting the title of Princess
of Asturias. According to the treaty:

Isabella would inherit the crown upon Henry’s death, she wouldn’t try to rise up against him, she wouldn’t get married without his consent but also: she wouldn’t be forced into any marriage by her older brother – the king.

However, the situation wasn’t as simple as it might have been seem: King Henry was being manipulated by his advisors and their plan was clear: Isabella received the duchy of Asturias alongside the title due to every heir of Castile and Leon – but it didn’t mean it was accepted willingly. It might have been some kind of a strategy to placate the infanta meanwhile planning on marrying her off to a foreign ruler, so she would be far away from her homeland and perhaps she would give up her rights to the throne under those circumstances? Being a queen consort of another country, occupied with bearing children, her position in Castile would have weakened.

Isabella l of Castile - attributed to Gerard David
Isabella l of Castile – attributed to Gerard David

Isabella was warned about all possible traps that might have been set up to get rid of her, most likely by her faithful advisors including the most important one, Gonzalo Chacón who had been her tutor even since the princess was a little girl – so even though she agreed on all Henry’s propositions, including the one of taking her to Ocana – where she would be kind of isolated – the infanta didn’t stop being wary.

Indeed, the princess had stuck in Ocaña for a couple of months under constant supervision waiting for an opportunity to set herself free.

It did happen in spring of 1469 as her brother the king left Ocaña altogether with his adviser. 18-year-old Isabella decided to take an action. She had to run away and she knew how she was going to achieve her goal.

The first anniversary of her younger brother’s death was coming and she as a sister had to go to Avilla to take care of all the preparations – it was her excuse. Only a few ladies-in-waiting that had been appointed by the king and his advisor (Juan Pacheco) were brave enough to accompany the infanta, considering a trip of this kind was very dangerous and rather a bold act on her part.

However, she managed to escape, taking part, as she stated in the mass in Alfonso’s honor and then going to Madrigal, seeking for her most powerful supporter’s help, Alfonso Carrillo, The Archbishop of Toledo who escorted
her to Valladolid – where she eventually would get married to her second cousin, Ferdinand of Aragon, the same year. The man that she chose on her own, making that important decision still being locked up in Ocana.

Isabella had many „suitors” including Alfonso V of Portugal – her mother’s first cousin and Henry IV of Castile’s brother-in-law who was, in her brother’s eyes, the perfect candidate – he would have taken Isabella to Portugal, away from his kingdom and on top of that this match would have strengthened castillian-portuguese alliance even more. However, Isabella didn’t agree to marry the old Portuguese king being perfectly aware of her brother’s cunning strategy. After her younger brother’s death Isabella became perfect bride in eyes of many; Louis XI of France wanted her as a wife for his younger brother, Charles, Duke of Guyenne – the match strongly supported by Henry IV, she was also considered a great candidate as for the queen of Edward IV of England. However, the Aragonese prince was the option she found the most suitable: young (he was one year younger than her), virile (before marrying Isabella, Ferdinand already fathered illegitimate children), militarily experienced moreover the same blood was running through their veins as both were direct members of the House of Trastámara. She needed him to achieve her goal, to win the throne and he was perfect for the role. It was purely a political match however shrouded in an atmosphere of romance as the prince came to Castile dressed up as a muleteer to marry the princess so he wouldn’t get captured by people of Henry IV – the marriage that changed the course of history.

Sources:

Manuel Fernández Álvarez, „Isabel La Católica”, 2003/2007, ISBN:
978-83-06-03055-6

Tarsicio de Azcona, „Isabel La Católica: vida y reinado”, 2014, ISBN:
978-849060-165-5

Filip Kubiaczyk, „Mi?dzy wojn? a dyplomacj?. Ferdynand Katolicki i polityka
zagraniczna Hiszpanii w latach 1492-1516”, 2010, ISBN: 97883-242-1424-2

Hernando del Pulgar, „Crónica de los Señores Reyes Católicos Don Fernando y
Doña Isabel de Castilla y de Aragón”

 

About the Author:
My name is Meg, 23-year-old from Poland. Language nerd, history buff, dreamer. I would like to travel a lot and one day lock myself up in the Archive of Simancas for a couple of days.

Facebook no longer shows our posts to a majority of our followers - Don't want to miss out on new articles? Get notified! Subscribe to email updates from Tudors Dynasty.

Join 5,012 subscribers.